Information on waste reduction, recycling and reuse Printable versionLast update: 18.09.2020
The state policy of Kazakhstan in the field of waste management is defined in the Concept for the transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to a "green" economy and is aimed at the introduction of separate collection of waste, the development of the sector of waste recycling with the receipt of products from recycled materials with the attraction of investment, including through public-private partnerships. According to the Concept, by 2030 the share of waste processing should be increased to 40%, and by 2050 - to 50%.
In order to develop the sphere of solid waste processing (hereinafter - MSW), the regulatory framework has been improved. In particular, the Environmental Code has been amended.
Since 2016, it is prohibited to landfill mercury-containing lamps and devices; scrap metal; waste oils and liquids; batteries; electronic waste.
As of 1 January 2019, a ban on burial of plastics, waste paper, cardboard and waste paper and glass came into effect.
Since 2021 - for construction and food waste.
The introduction of these standards has enabled the promotion and development of small and medium-sized businesses in the field of waste management.
Compensation of expenses of enterprises for collection, transportation and processing of recycled materials
Creation of waste management infrastructure
The activities carried out made it possible to increase the share of MSW processing up to 11.51% in 2018, whereas this indicator in 2017 was 9%, and in 2016 - 2.6%.
For reference: The country produces 5-6 million tons of MSW annually. In the first 12 months of 2018, about 4.3 million tons of solid waste were generated, of which about 500,000 tons were processed and disposed of.
As part of the program to receive old cars from the population from November 21, 2016 to the end of 2018, 83,268 units of old cars were accepted.
The infrastructure of electric charging (gas) stations (hereinafter - ES) is being created in the cities of Nur-Sultan and Almaty, as well as on the Nur-Sultan – Shchuchinsk highway. It is planned to install 110 ES in total, including 100 in Astana and Almaty, and 9 on the Nur-Sultan - Shchuchinsk highway. To date, 51 ESs have been installed, 48 of them in Astana and 3 in Almaty.
In pursuance of the order of the Head of State N.A. Nazarbayev, voiced in the State of the Nation "New Development Opportunities in the Context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution", the Ministry of Energy, in accordance with paragraph 15 of the NP on the implementation of the State of the Nation , developed a draft set of measures on modern disposal and recycling of MSW with the broad involvement of small and medium-sized businesses. Complexes of measures have been coordinated with the interested state bodies and organizations (MNE, MIC, MES, regional akimats, of the cities of Astana, Almaty and Shymkent, NCE "Atameken", Kazakhstan Waste Management Association "KazWaste", "Operator ROP" LLP), and today they are approved by the akimats of all regions, cities of national importance and the capital.
A set of measures provides for:
- development of Waste Management Programmes that define the overall strategy for the development of MSW management in the regions;
- revision of the current tariffs taking into account all operations - collection, removal, utilization, recycling and disposal of solid waste;
- introduction of separate collection, installation of sorting complexes, which will allow to obtain better quality recyclable materials, develop the market of recyclable materials and reduce the volume of waste disposed on the landfill, increase the service life of landfills, respectively, to reduce budget expenses for the construction of new landfills;
- development of MSW management infrastructure, including organic waste treatment with biogas or composting;
- conducting extensive public awareness raising on MSW to raise environmental awareness and involve them in the process of separate collection of MSW;
- establishing cooperation and attracting investment.тастықты жолға қою және инвестиция тарту.аживание сотрудничества и привлечения инвестиций.
Implemented projects since the beginning of 2019
Plans for 2019 and beyond:
- Since 2018, the Akimat of Nur-Sultan in cooperation with Operator ROP LLP has been implementing a pilot project to organize separate collection of solid waste, processing and disposal of organic (food) waste. Introduction of the organic fraction recycling technology will allow to increase the level of MSW processing up to 75%. The project is due for completion in December 2019.
- In 2019, it is planned to launch waste sorting lines at landfills in Kostanay (Tazalyk LLP 2012), Zhitikara (Sotsservis LLP), Kyzylorda within the framework of public-private partnership (capacity of 60 thousand tons per year), in Atyrau region (capacity of 50 thousand tons per year), increase of sorting line capacity in Karaganda up to 200 thousand tons per year.
- In Ile district of Almaty region it is planned to build a full-cycle waste processing plant together with the Kazakhstani-Spanish company WasteEnergyKazakhstan LLP with the capacity of 120 thousand tons per year, as well as a waste processing plant ZOR BIO LLP with the capacity of 100 thousand tons per year, which provides for the technology of complete processing of solid waste with the subsequent burning of biogas for the purpose of obtaining and selling electricity, as well as biocarbon and fertilizers. Expected capacity of one project of WasteEnergyKazakhstan LLP is 8 MW (the first stage is 4 MW) and the second project of ZOR BIO LLP is 4 MW.
- In Zhambyl region within the framework of the state program of industrial-innovative development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2015-2019 "Ekojer" LLP is planned to build a plant for processing of industrial and household waste on the basis of American technology, with a capacity of 100.0 thousand tons per year. The deadline is 2018-2020.
- Akimats of Oskemen and Semey jointly with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (hereinafter - EBRD) are working on projects to modernize MSW management systems, which considers the construction of complexes for mechanical and biological treatment of MSW, construction of new sanitary landfills, closure of existing landfills, procurement of specialized equipment and machinery. Currently, EBRD consultants - Austrian consulting company "GWCC Interival" (key/main consultant) and Kazakhstan consulting company "BDC Consulting" LLP (Almaty) are conducting feasibility studies on the implementation of these projects.